projects

 

Ofra Aqua Plants – Projects

 

Rural areas

 

Constructed Wetlands have been built in the south of Israel as an overall solution for rural communities. Treating sanitary wastewater, locations include dairy farms, sheep farms, dairy factories, wineries, and olive oil mills. 

 

The projects are incorporated in a national plan to create a water bird route through the desert, and each location has been developed as a bird sanctuary. Although the source water contains a high organic load, the outflow is below 5 mg/liter BOD5. All parts of the system from raw dairy farm effluent to the polishing units are differently designed Constructed Wetlands.

 

In Neot Smadar a connected project was built. This is a double function 27,000 sq.m pond serving as a water reservoir and a fish farm simultaneously.  The water source is a local, slightly saline well. The lake is incorporated in the bird park. (Picture 1, picture 2). Graph 1 shows that in spite of the high organic load of the fish, the quality of the irrigation outflow is higher than that of the inflow from the well.

 

Animal wastewater

 

Ofra has built CW systems for dairy farms, duck farms and slaughter houses.

A special design developed by Ofra can treat raw sewage containing high organic loads and high levels of TSS. Some projects are designed as a pre-treatment only (example: Table 1, duck farm) whereas others provide water for olive tree irrigation (Table 2, pictures 2,3).  In these cases, the high organic load is not the only concern: high levels of boron threaten to sterilize agricultural land and damage crops, and high levels of detergents and chlorides are also damaging. The systems built and designed by Ofra cope successfully with all hazards.

 

Hydrocarbons

 

Ofra has built many systems for gas stations and rest areas, to deal with the leachates from stations with toilets, shops, and restaurants. The outflow is used for surrounding gardens and trees. (Tables 3,4, pictures 4,5,6).  

 

Hydrocarbons are an issue on army bases, where Ofra designs and builds individual small systems to treat the oil and grease effluent from aircraft and vehicle hangers. (Picture 7, table 5)

 

River rehabilitation

 

River rehabilitation raises many issues about water quality not formerly discussed. Conventional wastewater plants, even the best among them, fail to provide the river with life supporting water.  Most conventional systems do not remove heavy metals, chlorides, pathogens, hormones, pharmaceutical residues, oils and greases, as well as many other pollutants. Moreover, these technologies are very sensitive to fluctuations, and often fail to produce the constant quality that is essential to maintain the ecological balance in natural systems such as rivers and lakes. Often, even if the river’s main source is good quality water, it acquires non point pollution along its course that destroys sections of the river or all of it.  

  

Ofra has built 2 different projects for Israel’s main river, the Yarkon, and is now designing another system for the Alexander River that suffers from Nablus’ wastewater pollution. This pollution is extreme during the October-November olive oil season.  During these months, salinity levels in the water are dramatically increased and the water also contains high quantities of oils and grease. This pollution kills the life that has taken the entire rest of the year to establish itself.

 

The first Yarkon system is a by-pass CW, taking water from the river, cleaning it, and returning clear healthy water back to the river. More bypasses like these are planned along the bank. Monitoring the inflow has shown variability in the incoming pollutants, and the ability of the system to cope with it. (Table 6, pictures 7,8)

 

The second system, a research system financed by the Italian Government, is the biggest of its kind.  Headed by Prof. Gazit from Tel Aviv University, a team of researchers from many leading universities is working on different aspects of CW abilities and their effects on river life. The system comprises rows of different designs of wetlands, all leading to identical ponds simulating the river.  Here detailed biological monitoring takes place to identify changes in fish and invertebrate communities.  This project serves as a preparation for large scale CW that will treat all effluents entering the river. (Picture 9)

 

Landfill leachates

 

Old landfills that were not sealed when constructed pose a threat to ground water and surrounding rivers. New, sealed landfills, still have to cope with the leachates that are characteristic of multi-pollution effluents, and which are often severely salinated.

 

The Hiria site, Israel's main landfill for many years, resulted in a high stinking mountain leaking poisonous leachates into the ground and the two surrounding rivers. This area, a wound in the heart of the Tel Aviv area, is now becoming the biggest park in Israel, containing within it a 300,000 sq.m recycling park that will demonstrate techniques of reuse and restoration. 

As a first step, Ofra has built a system to treat the leachates from the old mountain. Another combined system has been built for the wastewater of the existing sorting station that accepts the waste of all central Israel.

 

The second stage has been designed in collaboration with award wining German landscape architect Peter Latz.  It includes the restoration of the whole mountain and its surroundings, collecting and treating the water, and restoring the two rivers on the site.

 

The third stage is the construction of a 5,000,000 sq.m CW that will treat municipal wastewater as part of the larger Ayalon Park. The water will irrigate the park areas, and the rest of the water will be sold to farmers in more remote areas.  Parts of the CW will be open to the public, with trails, bridges and bird watching spots.

 

Ofra has also built another system at a landfill project in Teenim, in the north of Israel.  This is an up-to-date landfill, accepting and sorting waste from the northern area.  While the site initially had another water treatment system, it ultimately proved inefficient and extremely expensive to operate.

 

Industrial effluents

 

Modern industry often creates polluted outflows that are very difficult to treat.

Kapro factory produces measuring tools, and its sewage contains chromium.

Although this environmentally minded company had installed a sophisticated yet conventional system to deal with its pollutants, it was too expensive to maintain.  The system built by Ofra replaces the conventional system, and has no maintenance costs.

 

The Ahava cosmetic factory on the Dead Sea bank has greasy emulsions that could not be collected or treated by any conventional device, but which are now treated effectively in the CW system. (Picture 10).  Other systems are currently being designed by Ofra to treat industrial effluents.

 

Municipal grey water

 

The proper use of grey water as a device to save drinking water and lower irrigation costs is a "hot" issue. Many citizens, sports centers, and even municipalities are trying to use this water without the necessary treatment, resulting in soil sterilization, health hazards and not to mention breaking the law.  In dry years, not using grey water can lead to drying gardens and high irrigation costs.

     

Following consultation with Ofra Aqua Plants, the Tel Aviv municipality has initiated a strategic policy in efforts to turn the situation around.  All new development within its jurisdiction will contain water features based on water treated through Constructed Wetlands.

 

The system will produce all the water needed for the public gardens and orchards surrounding it.  The Bitzaron area in the center of town is the first project to adopt the new policy. The area has been evacuated and new high rises built. Divided into 3 sections, the construction of the first section containing office buildings has just been completed. The source water for this section comes from area storm water, as well as from air conditioning and cooling tower water. (Illustration 1)

 

Under the same principle, a new neighborhood of 550 apartments is under construction in Gani Tikva, with a separate grey water pipeline. The wetland and the ponds of purified water are the centre and highlight of the neighborhood, carrying an esthetic and recreational value to the inhabitants and the city. (Illustration 2)

 

Two other larger residential areas in Bat Yam and Beit Shemesh are currently being designed, with the full support of the mayors, the Ministry of Environment, and the Ministry of Housing.

 

Another "grey water" project was built in a spa located in an old age residential area.  Although the spa produces a large quantity of good quality water, under Israeli regulations it is not good enough for public irrigation. Since space was scarce, the Constructed Wetland was built as "hanging gardens" on the spa walls.

(Picture 11). Laboratory test results: table 7.

 

 

Upgrading water for agriculture

 

The on-going argument regarding who should pay for the upgrading of water for agriculture often leaves farmers without a source of good water. The government enforces the use of treated water as a means of preventing pollution and saving water, but the municipal wastewater plants produce water that is unsuitable for many crops and is damaging to the soil. As a result, many farmers are forced to quit farming.

Ofra offers a low cost alternative, upgrading existing water to meet the farmers’ needs. (Picture 12: A system for farm use treating 50 cubic meters per day.)

 

        

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neot Smadar reservoir and fish farm

Neot Smadar reservoir and fish farm
neot smadar reservoir and fish farm 2

Table 1 duck farm pretreatment system

 
 
 
 
 

/locationdate

COD

TSS

E.colli

IN

12,050

18,580

65,000

OUT

1,130

160

900

 

 

 

 

dairy farm results

 

DATE

BOD

TSS

TN

TP

BORON

LOCATION

11.7.02

7000

3200

1439

86

0.28

IN

11.702

 

 

 

 

 

*OUT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25.7.02

518

30

153

17.7

0.27

IN

25.7.02

260

(49.8%)

20

(33.3%)

15        

   (92%)            

3.7        

(79%)

00

OUT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20.8.02

1026

880

268.9

50.3

0.25

IN

20.8.02   

115  

  (88.8%)

40 

  (95.5%)

191  

   (29 %)

22.3   

(55.7%)

0.18   

OUT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

04.09.02

1100 

653

323.2

63

0.32

IN

04.09.02

110 

   (90%)

149

(77.1%)

209.4

(35.2%)

28 

(55.5%)

0.31 

OUT

9.10.02

538

890

421

40.8

0.6

IN

9.10.02

130

(75.8%)

205 

(77%)

298.2

(29%)

19.5

(52%)

0.69

OUT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24.11.02

3110

5800

1238

96.9

1.71

IN

24.11.02

118     

(96.2%)

100

(98.2%)

331

(73%)

28

(71.1%)

0.7

(59%)

OUT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.02.03

3800

4686

 

 

5.05

IN

2.02.03

153

(96%)

124

(97.3%)

 

 

0.52

(89.7%)

OUT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.03.03

6000

4267

1147.2

112.8

1.76

IN

2.03.03

170

(97.16%)

148   

(96.5%)             

158.8      (86.16%)

43.6

(61.34%)

0.34

(80.68%)

OUT

DAIRY FARM PRETREATMENT

DAIRY FARM PRETREATMENT

DAIRY FARM TREATMENT

DAIRY FARM  TREATMENT

DVIRA GAS STATION RESULTS

 

 

/locationdate

BOD

TSS

ammonia

TP

detergents

e.colli

19.5.05

IN

470

116

221

163

2.2

5,400,000

19.5.05י

OUT

19.5

5>

167

11

1.3

28,000

1.5.05

IN

225

45

204

13.3

3.25

7,200,000

1.5.05

OUT

20.4

5>

180

11

2.7

38,000

30.3.05

IN

450

210

219

16.7

4.3

140,000

30.3.05

OUT

15

5>

167

11

4

 

700

 

 

 

 

LAHAV GAS STATION RESULTS

 

 

 

30.3.05

IN

30.3.05

OUT

*1.5.05

IN

1.5.05

OUT

19.5.05

IN

19.5.05

OUT

BOD

45

24

102

39

63

7.8

COD

182

78

TSS

50

7

84

20

14

5>

Ammonia

103

44

80

60

61.4

56

TP

10.9

1.6

7.6

5.3

5.5

3.7

detergents

4.1

3.9

2.9

2.3

2.8

3.6

E. colli

540,000

300

450,000

9,000

1,100,000

5,900

oil and fats

27

5>

 

 

 

 

Mineral oilי

25

5>

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dvira gas station samples of the inflow and outflow

Dvira gas station samples of the inflow and outflow

Dvira Gas station

Dvira Gas station

Lahav gas station

Lahav gas station

Yarkon results

 

 

 

1.3.05

IN

1.3.05

OUT

14.3.05

IN

14.3.05

OUT

30.3.05

IN

30.3.05

OUT

30.4.05

IN

30.4.05

OUT

26.10.05

IN

26.10.05

OUT

BOD

85

5>

7.3

1.2

37

9.6

* 151

* 20

31 5.1

COD

160

29

88

54

51

ND

98 72

TSS

36

ND

13

5>

52

2

5

ND

24 5>

Ammonia

9.1

1.4

28.2

3.8

9.6

2.3

TKN

17.4

5.2

10.2

3.1

 

 

 

 

TP

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

Detergents

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

E. colli

 

 

1,800

10>

2,800

30

3,600

130

11,000 550

oil and fat

5

ND

mineral oil

8

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boron

0.174

0.159

 

 

 

 

0.146

0.131

0.2> 0.2>

Cl

132

152

196

181

200

200

194 194

Al

2.51

0.065

 

 

3.54

0.065>

0.39

0.065>

mangan

0.226

0.043

 

 

0.219

0.065

0.085

0.07

Na

156

152

 

 

163

162

166

166

Yarkon

Yarkon

clear water returning to the river

  clear water returning to the river

Yarkon research site at Shapdan

Yarkon research site at Shapdan

Ganei Tikva

Ganei Tikva

Achuzat Poleg grey water results

 

/locationdate

BOD

TSS

TKN

Cl

E.colli

7.8.05

IN

9.7

24

3.6

 

7.8.05 

OUT

0.9

5>

1.6

 

18.9.05

IN

6.6

8

4.3

632

 

18.9.05

OUT

1.6

5>

0.7

312

 

9.10.05

IN

35

29

14.2

415

3,500

9.10.05

OUT

2.8

5>

0.8

347

10

 
 
 

Achuzat Poleg

Achuzat Poleg

Ahava just after planting

Ahava just after planting